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In order to be able to predict the effect of drugs used in anaesthesia accurately it is important to know not only the trends in concentration of the drug at the effector site (pharmacokinetics), but also the biological effects that it has on the patient (pharmacodynamics). Pharmacokinetics can be described as the qualitative and quantitative study of the trends in the processes of absorption,...
Lymphoma is very common in cats, accounting for about 90% of haematopoietic neoplasms and 30% of all feline neoplasms. The estimated incidence is 200 new cases per year in 100,000 cats at risk. Nevertheless, most of the data available in the literature refer to the era prior to vaccination against Feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) and do not reflect the current situation accurately.
The term meningitis is used to define an inflammation of the meninges. The terms encephalitis and myelitis instead define, respectively, an inflammation of the encephalon and of the spinal cord. Given their specific pathogenetic mechanisms, inflammatory forms of the Central Nervous System (CNS) often involve more than one region, earning the name of meningoencephalitis or meningoencephalomyelitis...
Renal secondary hyperparathyroidismis a metabolic disorder that affects about 75% of dogs and 84% of cats with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Numerous factors are implicated in the pathogenesis of this endocrine abnormality (Fig. 1): retention of phosphorus secondary to a decrease in glomerular filtration rate and reduced synthesis of 1,25-(OH)2D constitute the initial stimulus to increase the...
The tear film is a relatively instable, complex, trilaminar fluid structure that covers the cornea and conjunctiva externally. Given its importance and close anatomical relationship with the cornea and conjunctiva, it tends to be considered an additional corneal layer. It is formed of an external lipid layer, an intermediate aqueous or serous layer and an internal mucinous layer adherent to the...
Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) of the humeral head is a manifestation of osteochondrosis involving the scapulo-humeraljoint, and in particular, the caudal portion of the humeral head, in which an osteochondral flap separates and then detaches completely, exposing the underlying subchrondral bone. The condition affectsmedium, large and giant breeds of dogs during the growth period. OCD of the...
Zinc phosphide is an inorganic compound with a dark grey, crystalline appearance. It has a characteristic smell of garlic or rotting fish. Zinc phosphide was synthesised for the first time in 1740 and initially used as a rodenticide in Italy in 1911-1912. This compound is currently used for the control of various animals, such as mice, rats, squirrels, wild rabbits and moles. In recent years it...

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