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Oleander (Nerium oleander) is an evergreen shrub belonging to the Apocynaceae family. There are three species which have leathery, lanceolate leaves with an entire margin, often arranged in whorls. The flowers, which grow in bunches at the end of each branch, can be of various colours.
An adult (18-month-old) dog was presented for lameness and bleeding of the paws of 4 months’ duration. The owner reported that the lesions developed slowly, and only recently did all four paws look similar to the one shown (96). The paws were painful, swollen, and exudative. The interdigital tissue was friable, and blood and pus exuded from the area when it was touched.
Numerous viral infections of the cat can involve the skin, including infections by poxviruses which are considered the most frequent. Skin lesions are also reported to occur sporadically during infection by retroviruses, papillomaviruses, coronaviruses and herpesviruses, and, more recently, by caliciviruses.
Ovarian tumours are not very common in the bitch, occurring with a frequency of about 6%, which is equivalent to 0.5-1.2% of all canine tumours, and accounting for 3.7% of tumours of female reproductive organs and 20% of ovarian pathologies. The frequency of primary ovarian tumours in the queen is even lower, ranging between 0.7 and 3.6%. In both species the real incidence is unknown because of...
Ivermectin, a mixture between 22,23-dihydro-avermectin B1a (≥ 80%) and B1b (≤ 20%), is produced by an actinomycete (Streptomyces avermitilis). Structurally, it is a disaccharide macrocyclic lactone, chemically related to milbemycin (Fig. 1). Ivermectin is active against nematodes and arthropods.   MECHANISM OF ACTION Ivermectin activates the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor causing...
Insulinoma is an insulin-secreting tumour of pancreatic beta cells. Despite being more frequent than other endocrine pancreatic tumours (gastronoma, glucagonoma), insulinoma is nevertheless a rare disease in the dog and very rare in the cat. The first case of insulinoma in a dog was described in 1935; in that same year, Dr. Whipple documented the first series of human insulinoma cases...
Pituitary dwarfism is a rare endocrine disorder described in both the dog and the cat, caused by an insufficient secretion of growth hormone (GH) and characterized by a significant growth retardation. In the German Shepherd the condition is combined with the deficiency of other hormones produced by the anterior pituitary lobe, such as thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), prolactin (PRL) and...

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